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Biodiversity in the US Midwest

Biodiversity in the US Midwest

February 17, 2023 at 6:00:00 PM

The US Midwest region, also known as the "Heartland" of America, is a vast area that encompasses 12 states and over 20% of the country's land area. It is home to a rich and diverse array of ecosystems, species, and habitats. In this article, we will explore the biodiversity of the US Midwest, including its unique features, challenges, and conservation efforts.

Geography and Climate

The Midwest region covers a large part of the central and eastern United States. It includes the Great Lakes, the Mississippi River, and the Prairie Pothole Region, which is a large area of wetlands that supports a wide variety of birds and other wildlife.

The climate of the Midwest varies widely depending on the location, with humid continental climates in the north and subtropical climates in the south. The region experiences severe weather events such as tornadoes, thunderstorms, and blizzards.


The Midwest region is home to a wide variety of species, including plants, animals, and fungi. It is known for its grasslands, wetlands, forests, and rivers, which support unique ecosystems and species.

One of the most iconic species of the Midwest is the American bison, which was once nearly extinct but has made a comeback in recent years thanks to conservation efforts. Other notable mammals include white-tailed deer, black bears, coyotes, and raccoons.

Birdwatchers flock to the Midwest to see rare and endangered species such as the Kirtland's warbler and the piping plover. The region also has a rich diversity of fish, including trout, salmon, and sturgeon, and is home to over 400 species of freshwater mussels.

The Midwest is also known for its plant diversity, with prairies, savannas, and forests supporting a variety of grasses, wildflowers, and trees. The region is home to several species of oaks, hickories, and maples, as well as rare and endangered plants such as the Eastern Prairie Fringed Orchid.

Conservation Efforts

Despite its biodiversity, the Midwest faces several challenges to its ecosystems and species. Habitat loss and fragmentation, climate change, invasive species, and pollution all threaten the region's biodiversity.

To address these challenges, many organizations and individuals are working to conserve and protect the Midwest's ecosystems and species. For example, the Prairie Pothole Joint Venture is a partnership of government agencies, NGOs, and other stakeholders working to conserve the wetlands of the Prairie Pothole Region.

The Midwest also has several large national parks and wildlife refuges, including the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness in Minnesota and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways in Missouri. These protected areas provide habitat for a wide variety of species and are important for conservation and recreation.


The US Midwest region is a vital part of the country's biodiversity, with a rich diversity of ecosystems, species, and habitats. Despite facing numerous challenges, there are many efforts underway to conserve and protect this unique and valuable natural heritage. By working together to support conservation efforts, we can help ensure that the Midwest's biodiversity remains healthy and vibrant for generations to come.

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